Sword Terminology

Japanese Swords

AIKUCHI - A tanto with no hand guard.
BO-HI - Grooves forged into the sword blade.
BOKKEN - A wooden sword used for training.
BONJI - Sanskrit carvings.
DAISHO - A matched pair of swords.
DAITO - A large katana over 24 inches.
FUCHI - Collar around the tsuka.
HA - The sharp cutting edge of the sword.
HABAKI - The collar around the blade, which fits the sword to the saya and stops the tsuba sliding forward.
HADA - Steel grain.
HAGANE - Steel.
HAMON - The temper line.
ITO - Braid around the tsuka
JI - The Surface between the hammon and the shinogi.
KASHIRA - Buttcap on the end of the tsuka.
KATANA - The general term for a Japanese sword (over two feet) worn cutting edge up.
KISSAKI - The point of the blade.
KOIGUCHI - Scabbard Mouth.
KOJIRI - End of saya.
KOZUKA - A Small utility knife which fits into the side of the scabbard.
KURIKATA - Knob on the side of the saya for the sageo.
MEKUGI - The peg which goes threw the the handle and the tang.
MENUKI - Ornaments wrapped under the ito to improve the grip.
MUNE - The back edge of the blade.
NAKAGO - Blade tang.
SAGEO -  The cord or braid attached to the kurigata on the side of the saya.
SAME - Ray skin, generally used on the tsuka for its gripping characteristics.
SAYA - The scabbard.
SEPPA - The washers used on either side of the tsuba.
SHINOGI - Ridge line on the side of the blade.
SHINOGI-JI - Flat surface between the Ji and Mune.
SHIRASAYA - A wooden finshed saya or saya and sword.
SORI - Curvature of the sword.
TACHI - General term for all slung swords.
TANTO - A dagger less than one foot long.
TSUBA - Sword hand guard.
TSUKA - Sword handle.
WAKIZASHI - A Medium length sword between one and two feet.
YAKIBA - The tempered surface along the edge.
YASURI-MI - File marks on the nakago.

European Swords

ANNELLET - A small loop which protrouds from the cross guard. Also know as a finger loop.
BACK - The part of the sword blade opposite to the edge. 
BASKET - An enclosure surrounding the grip area of a sword. Designed to protect the wielders hand.
BLADE - The part of the sword not including the hilt. Can be considered to include the tang.
CHAPPE - A piece of leather which surrounds the base of the blade, which helps protect the mouth of the scabbard. Also stops water entering in the scabbard.
CROSS GUARD - Refer to guard.
The cutting area of the blade.
FERRULE - A metal band at either end of the grip, used to secure the leather or wire in place.
FROG - A piece of leather which holds the scabbard to the belt.
 - A groove forged down the middle of a sword to lighten the blade whilst retaining most of its strength.
GRIP - The part of the sword which the welder holds, the handle.
GUARD - The part of the sword which protects the welders hands. Most commonly a bar perpendicular to the blade.
HILT - The part of the sword which includes the guard, grip, and pommel.
PEENED TANG - A term used to describe the construction of the tang. Meaning the tang has been hammered to the pommel.
POINT - The tip of the blade.
POINT OF BALANCE - Measured from the top of the guard to the balance point.
POMMEL - A counter weight at the hilt end of the sword fixed to the grip and tang.
QUILLIONS - A renaissance term used to describe the the cross guard.
RICCASO - Part of the sword near the base of the blade left unsharpened or wrapped in leather.
SCABBARD - The part which is used to cover the blade.
Refer to scabbard.
 The part of the blade which passes threw the hilt.
TEMPER - The procces which the steel has undergone to achive a better balance of strength and flexibiliy.